But this river has become increasingly polluted in recent years. Sewage and industrial effluents discharged into the river without any proper treatment, are the main causes of pollution. It has been reported by Centre for Science and Environment [ 2007 ] that the Delhi area of the river is nearly dead and is overloaded by Coliform bacteria. Central Pollution Control Board [ CPCB ] has reported [ 2008 ] that the Biochemical Oxygen Denand [ B.O.D. ] load has increased by 13 percent over last year.
Yamuna pollution starts from the Tajewala area of Haryana. When Yamuna passes through the areas of Yamuna Nagar, Karnal and Panipat, it receive industrial and domestic effluents. This result into a major increase in B.O.D. to 17 mg/lt. The acceptable B.O.D. level for raw water meant for treatment is 3 g/lt.
Haryana's vast agricultural areas are also significant contributors of pollution coz this river passes through agricultural areas that uses pesticides in high amount. This makes leaching from these areas the serious source of pollution dangerous to the aquatic life.
From Haryana, Yamuna enters Delhi at Palla village. Delhi generates about 1900 million litre per day of sewage and industrial effluents. The other cities, apart from Delhi, contributing pollution in Yamuna are Mathura and Agra.
The industrial effluents discharging industries include paper, sugar, chemical, leather, distillery and pharmaceuticals etc.
In this way, the entire Yamuna river, right from its entry into Haryana to confluence with the Ganga river at Sangam in Allahabad, is subject to HUMAN ACTIVITIES. This has resulted into a polluted Yamuna fro Goddess Yamuna.
This polluted water of Yamuna is also the BIG SOURCE of pollution FOR GANGA river when high B.O.D. water of Yamuna CONFLUENCE with Ganga at Sangam.
Now, the question arises that what can we do to check the pollution in Yamuna river. The answer is NOT simple and easy but ther are some suggestions, which should be followed. These are :
- check pollution at its primary source by installing water treatment plants into polluting industrial units as well as in municipalities, before final discharge of effluents into Yamuna.
- regular peoples participation programmes, as a mission, to check the pollution and management of pollutants.
- protecting the catchment areas from chemical contamination by shifting to organic and biological farming methods and checking the use of pesticides.